Natural Surfaces Coverings
Onyx tiles, mosaics, slabs, sinks
Granite tiles, mosaics, slabs, sinks
pavers, tiles, mosaics, slabs, sinks
Limestone, Jerusalem, Basalt
Wood tiles, mosaics, slabs, sinks
Manmade Surfaces Coverings
Glass tiles, mosaics, slabs, sinks
Ceramic and Porcelain tile and mosaics
Metal mosaics, tiles, slabs, sinks
Concrete pavers, tiles,
mosaics, slabs, sinks
Quartz tiles, mosaics, slabs, sinks
Acrylic sheets, honey cones, tubes
Foam decorative peaces, crown moldings
Outdoor and Patio Furniture
Glass shower doors, railings, stairs, walls
Stocked prefabricated kitchen cabinets
Murals, Venetian Plaster
doors, railings, stairs
Sinks (Stone, Metal, Glass Porcelain)
Pictures of our products from
Michael Henry Designs
Brands we carry:
European Onyx is proud to be your
FACTORY DIRECT source for many high end remodel products.
We have the largest selection of onyx
products in the USA. We usually stock over 600 slabs, 170+ mosaic colors and
stiles, over 50 sinks and over 40,000 sqf of onyx tiles, including hard to find
24x24 tiles. Quick link to our onyx products:
Dark Green onyx
Snow Flake onyx
Pastel Blue onyx
Pak Red onyx
Fantasy Brown onyx
Exotic Brown onyx
Tiger Paw onyx
We are able to produce any shape and any
color tile, custom mosaic, custom sink, custom fireplace, custom furniture
and any other item you desire at our factories located in Turkey and
China. We can also fabricate in
We import many products that are used for
residential and hospitality industries including but not limited to:
Porcelain, glass and other tiles, mosaics, patio
furniture, LED lighting, cabinets, vanities, pavers, pool copings and
(954) 302-2225, Fax: (954) 323-6715, showroom@EuropeanOnyx.com
Best selection of tiles, mosaics, sinks, pavers, glass
enclosures, outdoor furniture in south Florida.
801 North Federal Hwy, Fort Lauderdale, FL 33304
Monday to Friday: 10:00 - 5:00 pm. By appointment
(954) 816-9518, Fax:(954) 323-6715,
Largest selection of onyx products in the US. Cash and carry.
937 NW 8th avenue, Fort Lauderdale, FL 33311
Monday to Friday: 9:30 am to 4:30 pm. By appointment for other times.
July 2011: We have supplied and installed backlit onyx at
texas de brazil .
April 2011: We are becoming the leading name in providing Onyx for
back lit onyx projects in USA.
October 2010: Representing a high-end but affordable line of outdoor
furniture exclusively in the Ft Lauderdale area
January 2010: Representing a pure white onyx manufacturer from
Italy, exclusively in Florida
November 2009: Representing Porcelanosa brand Spanish ceramics, porcelains
and cabinets, exclusively in the Ft. Lauderdale area
June 2009: Representing Imola brand Italian ceramics, porcelains and
cabinets, exclusively in the Ft Lauderdale area
May 2009: Representing IRIS and FMG brand Italian ceramics, porcelains and
cabinets, exclusively in the Ft Lauderdale area
March 2009: Moved our Boca Raton showroom to our larger, downtown Ft
Lauderdale location directly on US-1 between Broward and Sunrise
January 2008: Representing 9 cabinet manufacturers from our Boca Raton
showroom at newly freed warehouse section
December 2007: Opened a separate warehouse in Miami and formed our
installation and fabrication division
March 2006: Opened our Boca Raton, Florida location in a 2,200 sqf building
that was used both as a warehouse and showroom.
June 2004: Opened our first Miami, Florida warehouse.
Whether you're building a new house or
remodeling, natural stone offers you unparalleled beauty, permanence, and
uniqueness and adds true value to your home.
See what others are saying about natural
Remodeling Magazine (2003 Cost vs. Value Report):
Homeowners who remodel recover the following percentages of their
remodeling costs at resale
(note: upscale projects include stone):
Bathroom remodel-upscale: 92.6%,
Bathroom addition-upscale: 84.3%,
Kitchen remodel-upscale: 79.6%
In a study of materials for kitchen countertops, granite had the highest
number of "excellent" ratings of any surface.
According to New York
Times by KATE MURPHY
What’s Lurking in Your
SHORTLY before Lynn Sugarman of Teaneck, N.J., bought her summer home in
Lake George, N.Y., two years ago, a routine inspection revealed it had
elevated levels of radon, a radioactive gas that can cause lung cancer. So
she called a radon measurement and mitigation technician to find the
“He went from room to room,” said Dr. Sugarman, a pediatrician. But he
stopped in his tracks in the kitchen, which had richly grained cream,
brown and burgundy granite countertops. His Geiger counter indicated that
the granite was emitting radiation at levels 10 times higher than those he
had measured elsewhere in the house.
“My first thought was, my pregnant daughter was coming for the weekend,”
Dr. Sugarman said. When the technician told her to keep her daughter
several feet from the countertops just to be safe, she said, “I had them
ripped out that very day,” and sent to the state Department of Health for
analysis. The granite, it turned out, contained high levels of uranium,
which is not only radioactive but releases radon gas as it decays. “The
health risk to me and my family was probably small,” Dr. Sugarman said,
“but I felt it was an unnecessary risk.”
As the popularity of granite countertops has grown in the last decade —
demand for them has increased tenfold, according to the Marble Institute
of America, a trade group representing granite fabricators — so have the
types of granite available. For example, one source, Graniteland (graniteland.com)
offers more than 900 kinds of granite from 63 countries. And with
increased sales volume and variety, there have been more reports of “hot”
or potentially hazardous countertops, particularly among the more exotic
and striated varieties from Brazil and Namibia.
“It’s not that all granite is dangerous,” said Stanley Liebert, the
quality assurance director at CMT Laboratories in Clifton Park, N.Y., who
took radiation measurements at Dr. Sugarman’s house. “But I’ve seen a few
that might heat up your Cheerios a little.”
Allegations that granite countertops may emit dangerous levels of radon
and radiation have been raised periodically over the past decade, mostly
by makers and distributors of competing countertop materials. The Marble
Institute of America has said such claims are “ludicrous” because although
granite is known to contain uranium and other radioactive materials like
thorium and potassium, the amounts in countertops are not enough to pose a
Indeed, health physicists and radiation experts agree that most granite
countertops emit radiation and radon at extremely low levels. They say
these emissions are insignificant compared with so-called background
radiation that is constantly raining down from outer space or seeping up
from the earth’s crust, not to mention emanating from manmade sources like
X-rays, luminous watches and smoke detectors.
But with increasing regularity in recent months, the Environmental
Protection Agency has been receiving calls from radon inspectors as well
as from concerned homeowners about granite countertops with radiation
measurements several times above background levels. “We’ve been hearing
from people all over the country concerned about high readings,” said Lou
Witt, a program analyst with the agency’s Indoor Environments Division.
Last month, Suzanne Zick, who lives in Magnolia, Tex., a small town
northwest of Houston, called the E.P.A. and her state’s health department
to find out what she should do about the salmon-colored granite she had
installed in her foyer a year and a half ago. A geology instructor at a
community college, she realized belatedly that it could contain
radioactive material and had it tested. The technician sent her a report
indicating that the granite was emitting low to moderately high levels of
both radon and radiation, depending on where along the stone the
measurement was taken.
“I don’t really know what the numbers are telling me about my risk,” Ms.
Zick said. “I don’t want to tear it out, but I don’t want cancer either.”
The E.P.A. recommends taking action if radon gas levels in the home
exceeds 4 picocuries per liter of air (a measure of radioactive emission);
about the same risk for cancer as smoking a half a pack of cigarettes per
day. In Dr. Sugarman’s kitchen, the readings were 100 picocuries per
liter. In her basement, where radon readings are expected to be higher
because the gas usually seeps into homes from decaying uranium
underground, the readings were 6 picocuries per liter.
The average person is subjected to radiation from natural and manmade
sources at an annual level of 360 millirem (a measure of energy absorbed
by the body), according to government agencies like the E.P.A. and the
Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The limit of additional exposure set by the
commission for people living near nuclear reactors is 100 millirem per
year. To put this in perspective, passengers get 3 millirem of cosmic
radiation on a flight from New York to Los Angeles.
A “hot” granite countertop like Dr. Sugarman’s might add a fraction of a
millirem per hour and that is if you were a few inches from it or touching
it the entire time.
Nevertheless, Mr. Witt said, “There is no known safe level of radon or
radiation.” Moreover, he said, scientists agree that “any exposure
increases your health risk.” A granite countertop that emits an extremely
high level of radiation, as a small number of commercially available
samples have in recent tests, could conceivably expose body parts that
were in close proximity to it for two hours a day to a localized dose of
100 millirem over just a few months.
David J. Brenner, director of the Center for Radiological Research at
Columbia University in New York, said the cancer risk from granite
countertops, even those emitting radiation above background levels, is “on
the order of one in a million.” Being struck by lightning is more likely.
Nonetheless, Dr. Brenner said, “It makes sense. If you can choose another
counter that doesn’t elevate your risk, however slightly, why wouldn’t
Radon is the second leading cause of lung cancer after smoking and is
considered especially dangerous to smokers, whose lungs are already
compromised. Children and developing fetuses are vulnerable to radiation,
which can cause other forms of cancer. Mr. Witt said the E.P.A. is not
studying health risks associated with granite countertops because of a
“lack of resources.”
The Marble Institute of America plans to develop a testing protocol for
granite. “We want to reassure the public that their granite countertops
are safe,” Jim Hogan, the group’s president, said earlier this month “We
know the vast majority of granites are safe, but there are some new exotic
varieties coming in now that we’ve never seen before, and we need to use
sound science to evaluate them.”
Research scientists at Rice University in Houston and at the New York
State Department of Health are currently conducting studies of granite
widely used in kitchen counters. William J. Llope, a professor of physics
at Rice, said his preliminary results show that of the 55 samples he has
collected from nearby fabricators and wholesalers, all of which emit
radiation at higher-than-background levels, a handful have tested at
levels 100 times or more above background.
Personal injury lawyers are already advertising on the Web for clients who
think they may have been injured by countertops. “I think it will be like
the mold litigation a few years back, where some cases were legitimate and
a whole lot were not,” said Ernest P. Chiodo, a physician and lawyer in
Detroit who specializes in toxic tort law. His kitchen counters are
granite, he said, “but I don’t spend much time in the kitchen.”
As for Dr. Sugarman, the contractor of the house she bought in Lake George
paid for the removal of her “hot” countertops. She replaced them with
another type of granite. “But I had them tested first,” she said.
Where to Find Tests and Testers
TO find a certified technician to determine whether radiation or radon is
emanating from a granite countertop, homeowners can contact the American
Association of Radon Scientists and Technologists (aarst.org). Testing
costs between $100 and $300.
Information on certified technicians and do-it-yourself radon testing kits
is available from the Environmental Protection Agency’s Web site at
epa.gov/radon, as well as from state or regional indoor air environment
offices, which can be found at epa.gov/iaq/whereyoulive.html. Kits test
for radon, not radiation, and cost $20 to $30. They are sold at hardware
stores and online.
According to EPA
In geological terms, granite is an igneous rock, meaning it was formed
when magma (molten rock) cooled very slowly until it solidified in a
process that can take many of thousands, or even millions of years. Since
the rock forms so slowly, minerals have a long time to grow into the
crystals that give granite its decorative appearance. Depending on the
crystals that are formed, granite can come in a wide range of colors. This
and other factors, make granite a popular building material in homes and
Radiation From Granite
Any naturally formed rock material has the potential of containing varying
amounts of naturally occurring radiation. Natural radioactive elements
like uranium, radium, and thorium can be present in a wide number of
minerals that appear as crystals in granite from around the world. So, it
is not unusual for materials such as granite to have some amount of
radioactivity (emissions of alpha or beta particles or gamma rays).
Depending on the composition of the molten rock from which they formed,
some pieces of granite can exhibit more radioactivity than others.
EPA has not conducted studies on radioactivity in granite countertops.
However, based on the limited information available, EPA believes that
most types of granite used in countertops and other aspects of home
construction are probably not major contributors of radiation and radon in
the home. EPA will continue to monitor and analyze the evolving research
on this issue and will update its recommendations if appropriate.
When present, certain radioactive elements in granite will decay into
radon, a colorless, odorless, radioactive gas which may be released from
the granite over time. You can see in the diagram below how the decay of
Uranium-238 (a radioactive element) produces Radon-222 gas:
To learn more about radioactive decay and radioactive half lives, see our
However, since granite is generally not very porous, less radon is likely
to escape from it than from a more porous stone such as sandstone. It’s
important to know that radon originating in the soil beneath homes is a
more common problem and a far larger public health risk than radon from a
granite countertop or other building materials. Also, any radon from
granite in kitchens or bathrooms is likely to be somewhat diluted in the
typical home since those rooms are among the most ventilated.
To reduce your risk of lung cancer from exposure to radon you should test
the air in your home. There are many inexpensive do-it-yourself home radon
test kits available at the retail level, on-line, or from 1-800-SOS-RADON
Radiation coming from granite countertops results from natural radioactive
material in the granite. Identifying the presence and concentration of
radioactive elements in granite requires expensive and sophisticated
portable instruments or laboratory equipment. These instruments and
equipment require proper calibration, and interpretation of their readings
requires a knowledgeable and trained user. At this time, there is no
generally accepted home testing protocol for radiation in granite
At the website maintained by The Conference of Radiation Control Program
Directors (CRCPD), you can find contact information for each state's
radiation protection program. Please visit, http://www.crcpd.org/Map/map.asp
, to find information for your state.
According to Marble Institute
Care and Precautions
Use coasters under all glasses, particularly those containing alcohol or
citrus juices. Many common foods and drinks contain acids that will etch
or dull the surface of many stones. Do not place hot items directly on the
stone surface. Use trivets or mats under hot dishes and placemats under
china, ceramics, silver or other objects that can scratch the surface.
Cleaning Procedures and Recommendations
Dust mop interior floors frequently using a clean non-treated dry dust
mop. Sand, dirt and grit do the most damage to natural stone surfaces due
to their abrasiveness. Mats or area rugs inside and outside an entrance
will help to minimize the sand, dirt and grit that will scratch the stone
floor. Be sure that the underside of the mat or rug is a non-slip surface.
Normally, it will take a person about eight steps on a floor surface to
remove sand or dirt from the bottom of their shoes. Do not use vacuum
cleaners that are worn. The metal or plastic attachments or the wheels may
scratch the surface.
Clean stone surfaces with a few drops of neutral cleaner, stone soap
(available at hardware stores or from your stone dealer) or a mild liquid
dishwashing detergent and warm water. Use a clean rag mop on floors and a
soft cloth for other surfaces for best results. Too much cleaner or soap
may leave a film and cause streaks. Do not use products that contain
lemon, vinegar or other acids on marble or limestone. Rinse the surface
thoroughly after washing with the soap solution and dry with a soft cloth.
Change the rinse water frequently. Do not use scouring powders or creams;
these products contain abrasives that may scratch the surface.
Bath and Other Wet Areas
In the bath or other wet areas, soap scum can be minimized by using a
squeegee after each use. To remove soap scum, use a non-acidic soap scum
remover or a solution of ammonia and water (about 1/2 cup ammonia to a
gallon of water). Frequent or over-use of an ammonia solution may
eventually dull the surface of the stone.
Vanity Top Surfaces
Vanity tops may need to have a penetrating sealer applied. Check with your
installer for recommendations. A good quality marble wax or non-yellowing
automobile paste wax can be applied to minimize water spotting.
Food Preparation Areas
In food preparation areas, the stone may need to have a penetrating sealer
applied. Check with your installer for recommendations. If a sealer is
applied, be sure that it is non-toxic and safe for use on food preparation
surfaces. If there are questions, check with the sealer manufacturer.
Outdoor Pool & Patio Areas
In outdoor pool, patio or hot tub areas, flush with clear water and use a
mild bleach solution to remove algae or moss.
Know Your Stone
Natural stone can be classified into two general categories according to
its composition: siliceous stone or calcareous stone. Knowing the
difference is critical when selecting cleaning products.
Siliceous stone is composed mainly of silica or quartz-like particles. It
tends to be very durable and relatively easy to clean with mild acidic
cleaning solutions. Types of siliceous stone include granite, slate,
sandstone, quartzite, brownstone and bluestone.
Calcareous stone is composed mainly of calcium carbonate. It is sensitive
to acidic cleaning products and frequently requires different cleaning
procedures than siliceous stone. Types of calcareous stone include marble,
travertine, limestone and onyx. What may work on siliceous stone may not
be suitable on calcareous surfaces.
How to Tell the Difference
A simple acid sensitivity test can be performed to determine whether a
stone is calcareous or siliceous. You will need about 4 oz. of a
10%solution of muriatic acid and an eye-dropper. Or you can use household
vinegar and an eyedropper. Because this test may permanently etch the
stone, select an out of the way area(a corner or closet) and several
inches away from the mortar joint. Apply a few drops of the acid solution
to the stone surface on an area about the size of a quarter. If the stone
is calcareous, the acid drops will begin to bubble or fizz vigorously. If
little or no reaction occurs, the stone can be considered siliceous. Rinse
the area thoroughly with clean water and wipe dry. This test may not be
effective if surface sealers or liquid polishes have been applied. If an
old sealer is present, chip a small piece of stone away and apply the acid
solution to the fractured surface. CAUTION: Muriatic acid is corrosive and
is considered to be a hazardous substance. Proper head and body protection
is necessary when acid is used.
A polished finish on the stone has a glossy surface that reflects light
and emphasizes the color and marking of the material. This type of finish
is used on walls, furniture tops and other items, as well as floor tiles.
A honed finish is a satin smooth surface with relatively little light
reflection. Generally, a honed finish is preferred for floors, stair
treads, thresholds and other locations where heavy traffic will wear off
the polished finish. A honed finish may also be used on furniture tops and
A flamed finish is a rough textured surface used frequently on granite
Stone Colors and Appearance
Granites and marbles are quarried throughout the world in a variety of
colors with varying mineral compositions. In most cases, marbles and
granites can be identified by visible particles at the surface of the
stone. Marble will normally show "veins" or high concentrations. The
minerals in granite will typically appear as small flecks distributed
uniformly in the stone. Each type of stone is unique and will vary in
color, texture and marking.
Sandstones vary widely in color due to different minerals and clays found
in the stone. Sandstone is light gray to yellow or red. A dark reddish
brown sandstone, also called brownstone, has commonly been used in the
northeastern United States and eastern Canada. Bluestone is a dense, hard,
fine-grained sandstone of greenish-gray or bluish-gray color and is
quarried in the eastern United States.
Limestone is a widely used building stone with colors typically light
gray, tan or buff. A distinguishing characteristic of many limestones is
the presence of fossils that are frequently visible in the stone surface.
Slate is dark green, black, gray, dark red or multi-colored. It is most
commonly used as a flooring material and for roof tiles and is often
distinguished by its distinct cleft texture.
Spills and Stains
Blot the spill with a paper towel immediately. Don't wipe the area, it
will spread the spill. Flush the area with plain water and mild soap and
rinse several times. Dry the area thoroughly with a soft cloth. Repeat as
necessary. If the stain remains, refer to the section in this brochure on
Identifying the type of stain on the stone surface is the key to removing
it. If you don't know what caused the stain, play detective. Where is the
stain located? Is it near a plant, a food service area, an area where
cosmetics are used? What color is it? What is the shape or pattern? What
goes on in the area around the stain? Surface stains can often be removed
by cleaning with an appropriate cleaning product or household chemical.
Deep-seated or stubborn stains may require using a poultice or calling in
a professional. The following sections describe the types of stains that
you may have to deal with and appropriate household chemicals to use and
how to prepare and apply a poultice to remove the stain.
Types of Stains and First Step Cleaning Actions
(grease, tar, cooking oil, milk, cosmetics)
An oil-based stain will darken the stone and normally must be chemically
dissolved so the source of the stain can be flushed or rinsed away. Clean
gently with a soft, liquid cleanser with bleach OR household detergent OR
ammonia OR mineral spirits OR acetone.
(coffee, tea, fruit, tobacco, paper, food, urine, leaves, bark, bird
May cause a pinkish-brown stain and may disappear after the source of the
stain has been removed. Outdoors, with the sources removed, normal sun and
rain action will generally bleach out the stains. Indoors, clean with12%
hydrogen peroxide (hair bleaching strength) and a few drops of ammonia.
(iron, rust, copper, bronze)
Iron or rust stains are orange to brown in color and follow the shape of
the staining object such as nails, bolts, screws, cans, flower pots, metal
furniture. Copper and bronze stains appear as green or muddy-brown and
result from the action of moisture on nearby or embedded bronze, copper or
brass items. Metal stains must be removed with a poultice.(See section on
Making & Using a Poultice) Deep-seated, rusty stains are extremely
difficult to remove and the stone may be permanently stained.
(algae, mildew, lichens, moss, fungi)
Clean with diluted (1/2 cup in a gallon of water) ammonia OR bleach OR
hydrogen peroxide. DO NOT MIX BLEACH ANDAMMONIA! THIS COMBINATION CREATES
A TOXIC AND LETHAL GAS!
(magic marker, pen, ink)
Clean with bleach or hydrogen peroxide (light colored stone only!) or
lacquer thinner or acetone (dark stones only!)
Small amounts can be removed with lacquer thinner or scraped off carefully
with a razorblade. Heavy paint coverage should be removed only with a
commercial "heavy liquid" paint stripper available from hardware stores
and paint centers. These strippers normally contain caustic soda or lye.
Do not use acids or flame tools to strip paint from stone. Paint strippers
can etch the surface of the stone; re-polishing may be necessary. Follow
the manufacturer's directions for use of these products, taking care to
flush the area thoroughly with clean water. Protect yourself with rubber
gloves and eye protection, and work in a well-ventilated area. Use only
wood or plastic scrapers for removing the sludge and curdled paint.
Normally, latex and acrylic paints will not cause staining. Oil-based
paints, linseed oil, putty, caulks and sealants may cause oily stains.
Refer to the section on oil-based stains.
WATER SPOTS AND RINGS
(surface accumulation of hard water)
Buff with dry 0000 steel wool.
FIRE AND SMOKE DAMAGE
Older stones and smoke or fire stained fireplaces may require a thorough
cleaning to restore their original appearance. Commercially available
"smoke removers" may save time and effort.
Etch marks are caused by acids left on the surface of the stone. Some
materials will etch the finish but not leave a stain. Others will both
etch and stain. Once the stain has been removed, wet the surface with
clear water and sprinkle on marble polishing powder, available from a
hardware or lapidary store, or your local stone dealer. Rub the powder
onto the stone with a damp cloth or by using a buffing pad with a
low-speed power drill. Continue buffing until the etch mark disappears and
the marble surface shines. Contact your stone dealer or call a
professional stone restorer for refinishing or re-polishing etched areas
that you cannot remove.
Efflorescence is a white powder that may appear on the surface of the
stone. It is caused by water carrying mineral salts from below the surface
of the stone rising through the stone and evaporating. When the water
evaporates, it leaves the powdery substance. If the installation is new,
dust mop or vacuum the powder. You may have to do this several times as
the stone dries out. Do not use water to remove the powder; it will only
temporarily disappear. If the problem persists, contact your installer to
help identify and remove the cause of the moisture.
SCRATCHES AND NICKS
Slight surface scratches may be buffed with dry 0000 steel wool. Deeper
scratches and nicks in the surface of the stone should be repaired and
re-polished by a professional.
Making and Using a Poultice
A poultice is a liquid cleaner or chemical mixed with a white absorbent
material to form a paste about the consistency of peanut butter. The
poultice is spread over the stained area to a thickness of about 1/4 to
1/2 inch with a wood or plastic spatula, covered with plastic and left to
work for 24 to 48 hours. The liquid cleaner or chemical will draw out the
stain into the absorbent material. Poultice procedures may have to be
repeated to thoroughly remove a stain, but some stains may never be
Poultice materials include kaolin, fuller's earth, whiting, diatomaceous
earth, powdered chalk, white molding plaster or talc. Approximately one
pound of prepared poultice material will cover one square foot. Do not use
whiting or iron-type clays such as fuller's earth with acid chemicals. The
reaction will cancel the effect of the poultice. A poultice can also be
prepared using white cotton balls, whitepaper towels or gauze pads.
Cleaning Agents or Chemicals
Poultice with baking soda and water OR one of the powdered poultice
materials and mineral spirits.
Poultice with one of the powdered poultice materials and 12% hydrogen
peroxide solution (hair bleaching strength) OR use acetone instead of the
Poultice with diatomaceous earth and a commercially available rust
remover. Rust stains are particularly difficult to remove. You may need to
call a professional.
Poultice with one of the powdered poultice materials and ammonia. These
stains are difficult to remove. You may need to call a professional.
Poultice with dilute ammonia OR bleach OR hydrogen peroxide. DO NOT MIX
AMMO-NIA AND BLEACH! THIS COMBINATIONCREATES A TOXIC AND LETHAL GAS!
Applying the Poultice
Prepare the poultice. If using powder, mix the cleaning agent or chemical
to a thick paste the consistency of peanut butter. If using paper, soak in
the chemical and let drain. Don't let the liquid drip.
Wet the stained area with distilled water.
Apply the poultice to the stained area about1/4 to 1/2 inch thick and
extend the poultice beyond the stained area by about one inch. Use a wood
or plastic scraper to spread the poultice evenly.
Cover the poultice with plastic and tape the edges to seal it.
Allow the poultice to dry thoroughly, usually about 24 to 48 hours. The
drying process is what pulls the stain out of the stone and into the
poultice material. After about 24 hours, remove the plastic and allow the
poultice to dry.
Remove the poultice from the stain. Rinse with distilled water and buff
dry with a soft cloth. Use the wood or plastic scraper if necessary.
Repeat the poultice application if the stain is not removed. It may take
up to five applications for difficult stains.
If the surface is etched by the chemical, apply polishing powder and buff
with burlap or felt buffing pad to restore the surface.
Dos and Don'ts
DO Dust mop floors frequently
DO Clean surfaces with mild detergent or stone soap
DO Thoroughly rinse and dry the surface after washing
DO Blot up spills immediately
DO Protect floor surfaces with non-slip mats or area rugs and countertop
surfaces with coasters, trivets or placemats
DON'T Use vinegar, lemon juice or other cleaners containing acids on
marble, limestone, travertine or onyx surfaces
DON'T Use cleaners that contain acid such as bathroom cleaners, grout
cleaners or tub & tile cleaners
DON'T Use abrasive cleaners such as dry cleansers or soft cleansers
DON'T Mix bleach and ammonia; this combination creates a toxic and lethal
DON'T Ever mix chemicals together unless directions specifically instruct
you to do so
Granite ranked #1 in cleanability when compared to six other countertop
surfaces including stainless steel (based on a 1999 study by the
Hospitality Institute of Technology and Management).
Marble and granite have the same level of cleanability as engineered
(based on a 2006 study by the Hospitality Institute of Technology and
Natural stone is competitively priced with quartz surface products and
often priced lower.
Natural stone is low maintenance often only requiring warm water, mild
dishwashing liquid and a soft cloth to maintain its beauty.
Many varieties of natural stone do not need to be sealed, although many
are for customer peace of mind.
Granite does not emit dangerous levels of radon (based on technical paper
by Dr. Donald Langmiur, PhD, Colorado School for Mines in 1995, confirming
that consumers do not have to worry about radon exposure stemming from
natural stone in their home). Click Here for More Info
Stone is a product of nature and has its own unique qualities that
distinguish it from quartz surface materials. The wonderful character that
is offered by vein patterns, color variations, and other design
characteristics of stone should be taken into consideration when selecting
the perfect stone for your project. Discuss these characteristics with
your natural stone supplier.
Scientific versus Commercial
Definition of stones
Stones, and the minerals of which they are composed, have been studied
with keen interest in the earth science fields for centuries. Geology is
the study of the formation and history of the earth, while petrography is
the study of rocks and the minerals of which they're made. Geologists and
petrographers worldwide have defined hundreds of different rock types,
based on their mineral composition, texture, and method of formation.
Commercially, the use of the exact scientific rock definition would be a
cumbersome and unnecessarily complicated practice. Furthermore, there are
many rocks which are not clearly within one definition or another, but
rather "straddling the fence" between two definitions. This point is
further elaborated by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS)1, Department of
Scientific and commercial descriptions of various dimension stone types
overlap. The scientific description of dimension stone types is focused
primarily on the stone's geographic locality and mineralogical
composition, whereas the commercial description is focused primarily on
the locality and color of the stone. 2
Historically, it has been commercial practice to group stones within
performance and behavioral groups as opposed to true scientific
definition. This is recognized in several in ASTM International
standards3. While scientifically there are hundreds of rock type
identifications, only nine groups are commonly acknowledged commercially:
Granite, Limestone, Marble, Onyx, Quartzite, Sandstone, Serpentine, Slate,
Soapstone, and Travertine. This means that some rocks are included in
groups which are not perfectly coincident with their scientific
definition. High density and/or partially metamorphosed limestones,
especially those capable of taking a polish, are oftentimes included in
the marble group, because they appear, behave and perform more similarly
to marble than to limestone. Most igneous rocks, such as gabbro, diabase,
anorthosite, sodalite, gneiss, basalt, and many others are included in the
granite group because they behave and perform similarly to granite. There
are even a few non-igneous rocks (e.g. silicate-based conglomerates) that
are commercially grouped with granites. Therefore, if you purchase a Crema
Marfil "marble" vanity top, don't be surprised if your geologist friend
visits your home and insists that it is limestone, because scientifically
it is. Likewise, don't be surprised of the same geologist friend informs
you that your Paradisio "granite" bar top and your Absolute Black
"granite" kitchen island are really gneiss and gabbro respectively,
because scientifically that's what they are.4 The key is performance. If a
rock is sold within the granite group, the rock should be expected to have
performance in that application that is similar, or in some cases
superior, to that of a true granite.5
It is a fundamental position of the Marble Institute of America that there
exists no such thing as a "bad stone". There do exist however,
inappropriate selections for a given application, and also unrealistic
expectations of a given stone type in a specific application. The informed
selection of natural stone products is also influenced by the tastes of
the end user. To some, natural wear, etching, or weathering bring about a
hidden charm, or natural "patina" as the stone displays signs of its
yielding to the forces encountered in its service. To others, the only
acceptable performance is for the stone to maintain its pristine, "as new"
look for the entire duration of its service life. Selections of natural
stone types are available to satisfy both users, but the proper research
must be completed to assure that the selected stone will perform in
service with the desired behavior.
An excellent choice for kitchen countertops, floors, and other heavily
Exact and current extraction figures are not available, as data collection
from many countries is difficult. Statistics from various sources indicate
that the granite quarried in the countries of China, India, and Brazil
comprises approximately 2/3 of the granite used worldwide. There are
granite quarries in operation in dozens of countries, and it is one of the
most popular natural stones on the market. New granite resources are
continually being located and developed throughout the world.
Granite has long enjoyed use as an exterior cladding and pavement
material, and its inherent strength, abrasion resistance and superior
weathering durability are likely to keep it one of the preeminent material
selections available to today's architects. Granite has also been employed
as the traditional material for municipal curbs, where its strength and
durability have been documented with decades of vehicular abuse. In the
northern climates where snow melting chemicals are used heavily, granite
has resisted the attack of these caustic agents.
Being one of the hardest of the dimension stone types, granite was
historically avoided by the smaller, local stone fabricating shops, who
favored marbles and limestones due to their easier working properties. A
recent boom in the supply of affordable machinery and abrasives
technologies eliminated these previous difficulties in fabrication. The
use of granite has skyrocketed in residential interior applications as a
result. Available in a striking array of colors, granite's durability,
longevity, and economy make it ideal for kitchen countertops and other
heavily used surfaces, including table tops and floors.
Some synthetic surfaces scratch easily, while the hardness of the minerals
comprising most granites surpasses that of the utensils that are used on
them, resulting in excellent scratch resistance. Granite is typically heat
resistant up to temperatures of ±250°C (±480°F), although direct
application of localized heat sources is discouraged, since strong thermal
gradients within the stone can initiate cracking. Studies of bacteria
retention on common countertop surfaces have proven granite to be superior
to the majority of surfaces employed for that purposes (Ref: MIA Technical
Absorption rates (% water, by weight) of stones in this group range from
0.05% to 0.40%, indicating that the available pore volume capable of
harboring a staining agent is very slight. Impregnating repellents are
sometimes used to further reduce the stain resistance of these materials.
Marble, Onyx, & Serpentine
Ideal for foyers, bathrooms, floors and hearths
Marble is a metamorphic rock found in the mountainous regions of most
countries of the world. Marble quarried in India, China, Italy, and Spain
represents the majority of marble, in terms of volume, that is utilized
worldwide. Because of its beauty and elegance, marble is a popular choice
for countertops, floors, foyers, fireplace facings and hearths, walls, and
Marble with its inherent warmth, adds a sophisticated element to the area
in which it is installed. Its naturally random appearance, engineering
characteristics, and ease of maintenance makes it a premium choice for
floors, wall claddings, table tops, wainscot, floors, and vanity tops.
Many marbles are well suited for wet area application, which extends the
versatility of this material to include tub decks and showers.
The calcite crystal is the basic building block of true marbles. The
calcite crystal is vulnerable to attack by mild acids, including those
commonly found in kitchen and bar settings. The user selecting marble for
these applications should be aware of, and accepting of the maintenance
and patina that is to be anticipated with this combination. Acid rain and
other weathering elements can also affect exterior marble installations,
and exterior applications are generally limited to white marbles, with
Often mistaken for marble is serpentine, which is actually
magnesium-silicate based as opposed to calcite based. As a result of the
different mineralogy and whole rock chemistry of serpentine, it exhibits
greater acid resistance and abrasion resistance than does a true marble.
These properties make serpentine a common choice for both kitchen counter
and exterior application.
Onyx is often confused with marbles, yet it is a significantly different
rock type. Onyx is a sedimentary rock, formed as stalactites and
stalagmites in cave interiors. This formation method results in the
cryptocrystalline construction of the rock fabric, and it is the size and
uniformity of these crystals that contribute to the classic translucent
property of most onyx varieties. While vulnerable to chemical and abrasive
attack, the decorative appeal of onyx is perhaps unsurpassed by any other
Sandstone and Quartzite
Exploring the "quartz-based" stones
The term sandstone refers to the sand sized (0.06 to 2.0 mm) clasts that
are cemented together by other agents. Therefore, sandstone could be of
any mineralogy, but the overwhelming majority of sandstones on the market
The durability and performance of sandstone is not as greatly influenced
by the sand sized particles, as it is influenced by the cementing agent
that binds these particles together. Many types of sandstone are used in
cubic sections as sills, coping, watertables and other exterior features.
Exterior cladding is also a common application, although this stone
variety is typically used in thicker sections than other stone types due
to lower bending strengths. While sandstone has been used in both
countertop and shower lining applications, the varieties that are suitable
for these installations are limited.
Quartzite is a metamorphic rock that is formed from sandstone. Quartzite
can be of exceptional strength, density, and hardness. The strength,
abrasion resistance, and weathering durability of this rock type expand
its application possibilities to include most any of the common uses for
natural, dimension stone.
Slate and Soapstone
Versatile, Chemically Resistant Materials
A traditional use of both these materials was the laboratory table top in
chemistry labs. That application alone should serve as a great testimonial
to the chemical resistance of the materials.
Being of the softer varieties of dimension stone types, neither of these
materials is known for particularly high abrasion or scratch resistance,
yet they are both used a flooring and countertop products.
Soapstone is highly heat resistant, and has been used in fireplace
surrounds frequently to take advantage of this property.
Slate, being of laminar construction, has the ability to be processed into
thin sheets and still maintain serviceable strength and rigidity. This
property makes slate the only dimension stone having been used for
blackboards and roofing shingles. It was also traditionally used as the
cloth-covered playing surface of billiards tables.
Travertine, Limestone, and Dolomitic Limestone
An earthy appeal, indoors and out
Limestone deposits exist in all continents of the earth. Despite the
common and traditional reference to "travertine marble", travertine is
really a type of limestone. It is actually the terrestrial (land) formed
version of limestone, as opposed to the marine based formations of many
other limestone varieties.
Featuring their soft earth tones, decorators integrating these stones into
their design have great flexibility in selecting complimentary colors for
other interior elements.
Many varieties of both materials have enjoyed a successful history of
exterior application, and some of the most prominent government and
financial institutions worldwide proudly display limestone as their
exterior cladding. Despite the popularity of exterior vertical limestone
applications, the number of limestone varieties with successful history in
exterior paving applications, particularly in freeze/thaw environments, is
Since these stones are some of the softer varieties of natural stone
materials, they have long been a popular choice for intricately carved
features and moldings, as well as statuary.
Limestone and travertine, like marble, are of a calcium carbonate base,
and as such, are vulnerable to alteration by exposure to mild acids. A
wide variety of stones are included in this group, and absorption varies
from slight (<1%) to high (>10%). The combination of acid sensitivity and
absorption limit the number of varieties that are suitable for countertop
applications, and the user of limestone countertops should be well
educated in its properties to accurately anticipate its behavior in
Another form of limestone exists, which is dolomite. Dolomite is based on
the dual carbonate of calcium-magnesium carbonate, and the properties of
this stone are influenced by this difference in composition. Dolomites
generally have higher densities, lower absorptions, greater compressive
and bending strengths, and higher abrasion resistance than the calcium
carbonate based limestones. These property differences offer some
application choices for dolomites where other limestone varieties are
marginal or unsuitable performers.
ASTM International, originally known as the American Society for Testing
and Materials (ASTM), was formed over a century ago, when a
forward-thinking group of engineers and scientists got together to address
frequent rail breaks in the burgeoning railroad industry. Their work led
to standardization on the steel used in rail construction, ultimately
improving railroad safety for the public. As the century progressed and
new industrial, governmental and environmental developments created new
standardization requirements, ASTM answered the call with consensus
standards that have made products and services safer, better and more
cost-effective. The proud tradition and forward vision that started in
1898 is still the hallmark of ASTM International.
ASTM Committee C 18 on Dimension Stone was formed in 1926. C 18 meets
twice per year, usually in April and October, with about 20 members
attending over two days of technical meetings sometimes including a tour
of a quarry and stone fabrication mill. The Committee, with a current
membership exceeding 100 volunteers has jurisdiction of over 25 standards,
published in the Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Volume 4.07. Committee C
18 has 6 technical subcommittees that maintain jurisdiction over these
standards. Information on this subcommittee structure and C 18's portfolio
of approved standards and work items under construction are available from
www.astm.org. These standards have and continue to play a preeminent role
in all aspects important to the effective standardization of dimension
stone, including, testing, specifications and construction practices.
Dimension Stone Design Manual, VII, Marble Institute of America, 2007.
USGS Minerals Yearbook 2006, by Thomas P. Dolley, U.S. Geological Survey,
Dept. of the Interior.
In 1879, Congress passed legislation to rename the Coast and Geodetic
Survey and transfer it to the Department of the Interior establishing the
U.S. Geological Survey for "(the) classification of the public lands, and
examination of the geological structure, mineral resources, and products
of the national domain."
USGS Minerals Yearbook 2006, by Thomas P. Dolley, U.S. Geological Survey,
Dept. of the Interior.
ASTM International, originally known as the American Society for Testing
and Materials (ASTM), was formed in 1898.
Dimension Stone Design Manual, VII, Marble Institute of America, 2007,
pages 5-9 and 5-10 describes the geological classification of granite as
defined by the American Geological Institute (AGI).
"(Congress) did not suppose our merchants to be naturalists, or
geologists, or botanists. It applied its attention to the description of
articles as they derived their appellations in our own markets, in our
domestic as well as our foreign traffic." Quoted from, Two Hundred Chests
of Tea, 22 U.S. 430 (1824).
We specialize in: White onyx slabs, Tiger Paw
onyx slabs, Red onyx slabs, Green onyx slabs, Caramel onyx slabs,
Cappuccino onyx slabs, Honey onyx slabs, Yellow onyx slabs, , Ivory onyx
slabs, Dark Green onyx slabs, Multi-red onyx slabs, Exotic Brown onyx
slabs, Orange onyx slabs, Veined onyx slabs, Aqua Gold onyx slabs, Tiger Eye onyx slabs,
Dark Green Veined onyx slabs, Giallo Crystal onyx slabs,
Light Blue onyx slabs, Cram gold onyx slabs, arco iris onyx slabs, We have
the following type of sinks: white onyx sink, tiger paw onyx sink, red
onyx sink, green onyx sink, caramel onyx sink, cappuccino onyx sink, honey
onyx sink, yellow onyx sink, ivory onyx sink, dark green onyx sink,
multi-red onyx sink, exotic brown onyx sink, orange onyx sink, veined onyx
sink, aqua gold onyx sink, tiger eye onyx sink, dark green veined onyx
sink, giallo crystal onyx sink, light blue onyx sink, cram gold onyx sink,
arco iris onyx sink, We have under mount sinks. white onyx under mount
sink, tiger paw onyx under mount sink, red onyx under mount sink, green
onyx under mount sink, caramel onyx under mount sink, cappuccino onyx
under mount sink, honey onyx under mount sink, yellow onyx under mount
sink, ivory onyx under mount sink, dark green onyx under mount sink,
multi-red onyx under mount sink, exotic brown onyx under mount sink,
orange onyx under mount sink, veined onyx under mount sink, aqua gold onyx
under mount sink, tiger eye onyx under mount sink, dark green veined onyx
under mount sink, giallo crystal onyx under mount sink, light blue onyx
under mount sink, cram gold onyx under mount sink, arco iris onyx under
mount sink, We have vessels. white onyx vessel, tiger paw onyx vessel, red
onyx vessel, green onyx vessel, caramel onyx vessel, cappuccino onyx
vessel, honey onyx vessel, yellow onyx vessel, ivory onyx vessel, dark
green onyx vessel, multi-red onyx vessel, exotic brown onyx vessel, orange
onyx vessel, veined onyx vessel, aqua gold onyx vessel, tiger eye onyx
vessel, dark green veined onyx vessel, giallo crystal onyx vessel, light
blue onyx vessel, cram gold onyx vessel, arco iris onyx vessel, European
Onyx have countertop vessels. white onyx countertop vessel, tiger paw onyx
countertop vessel, red onyx countertop vessel, green onyx countertop
vessel, caramel onyx countertop vessel, cappuccino onyx countertop vessel,
honey onyx countertop vessel, yellow onyx countertop vessel, ivory onyx
countertop vessel, dark green onyx countertop vessel, multi-red onyx
countertop vessel, exotic brown onyx countertop vessel, orange onyx
countertop vessel, veined onyx countertop vessel, aqua gold onyx
countertop vessel, tiger eye onyx countertop vessel, dark green veined
onyx countertop vessel, giallo crystal onyx countertop vessel, light blue
onyx countertop vessel, cram gold onyx countertop vessel, arco iris onyx
countertop vessel, At European Onyx , Boca Raton, FL we sell onyx, any
color, white onyx, tiger paw onyx, red onyx, green onyx, caramel onyx,
cappuccino onyx, honey onyx, yellow onyx, , ivory onyx, dark green onyx,
multi-red onyx, exotic brown onyx, orange onyx, veined onyx, aqua gold
onyx, tiger eye onyx, dark green veined onyx, giallo crystal onyx, light
blue onyx, cram gold onyx, arco iris onyx, In our European Onyx Boca Raton
FL showroom we stock onyx mosaic tile, any color mosaic tile, white onyx
mosaic tile, tiger paw onyx mosaic tile, red onyx mosaic tile, green onyx
mosaic tile, caramel onyx mosaic tile, cappuccino onyx mosaic tile, honey
onyx mosaic tile, yellow onyx mosaic tile, mosaic tile, ivory onyx mosaic
tile, dark green onyx mosaic tile, multi-red onyx mosaic tile, exotic
brown onyx mosaic tile, orange onyx mosaic tile, veined onyx mosaic tile,
aqua gold onyx mosaic tile, tiger eye onyx mosaic tile, dark green veined
onyx mosaic tile, giallo crystal onyx mosaic tile, light blue onyx mosaic
tile, cram gold onyx mosaic tile, arco iris onyx mosaic tile, In our
European Onyx Boca Raton FL showroom we sell onyx tile, any color tile,
white onyx tile, tiger paw onyx tile, red onyx tile, green onyx tile,
caramel onyx tile, cappuccino onyx tile, honey onyx tile, yellow onyx
tile, tile, ivory onyx tile, dark green onyx tile, multi-red onyx tile,
exotic brown onyx tile, orange onyx tile, veined onyx tile, aqua gold onyx
tile, tiger eye onyx tile, dark green veined onyx tile, giallo crystal
onyx tile, light blue onyx tile, cram gold onyx tile, arco iris onyx tile,
We consistently beat the prices offered by Ann Sacks, Sherle Wagner,
Walker Zanger, Keys Granite, Coverings, Inter continental, Home Depot,
Lowes. We are one of the largest onyx distributor in USA. We stock onyx
tiles, mosaics, sinks, tubs, slabs, vanities, and custom products. We
specialize in white onyx, tiger paw onyx, red onyx, green onyx, caramel
onyx, cappuccino onyx, honey onyx, yellow onyx, , ivory onyx, dark green
onyx, multi-red onyx, exotic brown onyx, orange onyx, veined onyx, chiaro
onyx, aqua gold onyx, tiger eye onyx, dark green veined onyx, giallo
crystal onyx, light blue onyx, cram gold onyx, arco iris onyx, kasbah
onyx, white onyx slabs, tiger paw onyx slabs, red onyx slabs, green onyx
slabs, caramel onyx slabs, cappuccino onyx slabs, honey onyx slabs, yellow
onyx slabs, , ivory onyx slabs, dark green onyx slabs, multi-red onyx
slabs, exotic brown onyx slabs, orange onyx slabs, veined onyx slabs, aqua
gold onyx slabs, tiger eye onyx slabs, dark green veined onyx slabs,
giallo crystal onyx slabs, light blue onyx slabs, cram gold onyx slabs,
arco iris onyx slabs,
European Onyx is a proud member of the
National Kitchen and bath association American Society of interior
We are one of the largest onyx distributor in USA. We stock onyx tiles,
mosaics, sinks, tubs, slabs, vanities, and custom products. We specilize
in white onyx, tiger paw onyx, red onyx, green onyx, caramel onyx,
cappuccino onyx, honey onyx, yellow onyx, , ivory onyx, dark green onyx,
multi-red onyx, exotic brown onyx, orange onyx, veined onyx, chiaro onyx,
aqua gold onyx, tiger eye onyx, dark green veined onyx, giallo crystal
onyx, light blue onyx, cram gold onyx, arco iris onyx, kasbah onyx, white
onyx slabs, tiger paw onyx slabs, red onyx slabs, green onyx slabs,
caramel onyx slabs, cappuccino onyx slabs, honey onyx slabs, yellow onyx
slabs, , ivory onyx slabs, dark green onyx slabs, multi-red onyx slabs,
exotic brown onyx slabs, orange onyx slabs, veined onyx slabs, aqua gold
onyx slabs, tiger eye onyx slabs, dark green veined onyx slabs, giallo
crystal onyx slabs, light blue onyx slabs, cram gold onyx slabs, arco iris
** All our installations are performed by licensed and insured
professionals. We guarantee all materials that we sell and install.
European Onyx is a proud member of the
National Kitchen and bath association American society of interior
ONYX MOSAIC, ONYX SINK, ONYX TILE, ONYX SLAB, TRAVERTINE TILES, TRAVERTINE
MOSAICS, TRAVERTINE SLABS, TRAVERTINE SINKS, GRANITE, GLASS, METAL SLATE,
LIMESTONE, CABINET, CABINETS, VANITIES, TILE, TILES
Installation, Fabrication, Shower Enclosures, Remodel, Kitchen and bath
remodel, additions, general contractor
LARGEST SELECTION, BEST PRICES
NEW Onyx Arrivals!!
European Onyx is one the largest Onyx distributors in united states.
European Onyx owns 2 onyx queries in Turkey.
European Onyx owns and operates tile and mosaic factories in Turkey,
Pakistan and China.
Demand European Onyx brand products from your tile retailers.
Sizes and or shapes of onyx products we stock: 1/2 x 1, 1/2 x 1, 1/2 x 2,
3/4x3/4, 3/4 x 1 1/2 round, 1x2, 1 x 1 3/4, 1 x 1 3/4, 1, 1/4 x 2 1/4, 1
3/8 x 2 3/8, 1 x 3, 2x2, 2x2, 1/2x1/2 or 5/8x5/8, 1/2x1/2 or 5/8x5/8, 1/2
x 1, 3/4x3/4, 3/4x3/4, 1x1, 1x1, 1x2, brick/subway , 1x2, 2x2, 2x2, 2x4,
2x4, 4x4, 4x4, 3x6, 3x6, 6x12, tic tac, basket w red, basket w Brown,
Basket with black, basket w White, Deco, diamond, hexagon, fish scale,
boarder, pencil, chair rail, 12x12, 16x16 , 18x18, 24x24, round sinks,
rectangle, sinks, pedestal sinks, Slab