European Onyx is proud to be your FACTORY DIRECT source for many high end remodel products.
We have the largest selection of onyx products in the USA. We usually stock over 600 slabs, 250+ mosaic colors and stiles, over 50 sinks and over 40,000 sqf of onyx tiles, including hard to find 24x24 onyx tiles. Quick link to our onyx products:
Dark Green onyx
Snow Flake onyx
MOTHER OF PEARL
Pastel Blue onyx
Pak Red onyx
Fantasy Brown onyx
Exotic Brown onyx
Tiger Paw onyx
We are able to produce any shape and any color tile, custom mosaic, custom sink, custom fireplace, custom furniture and any other item you desire at our factories located in Italy, Turkey and China. We can also fabricate in South Florida.
We import many products that are used for residential and hospitality industries including but not limited to:
Porcelain, glass and other tiles, mosaics, patio furniture, LED lighting, cabinets, vanities, pavers, pool copings and more.
Factory direct Showroom, Warehouse and Clearance Center
(954) 302-2225, Fax: (954) 323-6715, sales@EuropeanOnyx.com
Best selection of tiles, mosaics, sinks, pavers, glass enclosures, outdoor furniture in south Florida.
Largest selection of onyx products in the US. Cash and carry. 937 NW 8th avenue, Fort Lauderdale, FL 33311
Monday to Friday: 10:00 am to 3:30 pm. By appointment for other times.
News blog: Jan 2016: We have closed our showroom on US-1 to lower our cost and pass the savings to you.
April 2011: We are becoming the leading name in providing Onyx for back lit onyx projects in USA. October 2010: Representing a high-end but affordable line of outdoor furniture exclusively in the Ft Lauderdale area January 2010: Representing a pure white onyx manufacturer from Italy, exclusively in Florida November 2009: Representing Porcelanosa brand Spanish ceramics, porcelains and cabinets, exclusively in the Ft. Lauderdale area June 2009: Representing Imola brand Italian ceramics, porcelains and cabinets, exclusively in the Ft Lauderdale area May 2009: Representing IRIS and FMG brand Italian ceramics, porcelains and cabinets, exclusively in the Ft Lauderdale area March 2009: Moved our Boca Raton showroom to our larger, downtown Ft Lauderdale location directly on US-1 between Broward and Sunrise January 2008: Representing 9 cabinet manufacturers from our Boca Raton showroom at newly freed warehouse section December 2007: Opened a separate warehouse in Miami and formed our installation and fabrication division March 2006: Opened our Boca Raton, Florida location in a 2,200 sqf building that was used both as a warehouse and showroom. June 2004: Opened our first Miami, Florida warehouse.
Whether you're building a new house or remodeling, natural stone offers you unparalleled beauty, permanence, and uniqueness and adds true value to your home.
See what others are saying about natural stone:
Remodeling Magazine (2003 Cost vs. Value Report):
Homeowners who remodel recover the following percentages of their remodeling costs at resale
In a study of materials for kitchen countertops, granite had the highest number of "excellent" ratings of any surface.
According to New York Times by KATE MURPHY
What’s Lurking in Your Countertop? http://www.nytimes.com/2008/07/24/garden/24granite.html?_r=1&pagewanted=print
SHORTLY before Lynn Sugarman of Teaneck, N.J., bought her summer home in Lake George, N.Y., two years ago, a routine inspection revealed it had elevated levels of radon, a radioactive gas that can cause lung cancer. So she called a radon measurement and mitigation technician to find the source.
“He went from room to room,” said Dr. Sugarman, a pediatrician. But he stopped in his tracks in the kitchen, which had richly grained cream, brown and burgundy granite countertops. His Geiger counter indicated that the granite was emitting radiation at levels 10 times higher than those he had measured elsewhere in the house.
“My first thought was, my pregnant daughter was coming for the weekend,” Dr. Sugarman said. When the technician told her to keep her daughter several feet from the countertops just to be safe, she said, “I had them ripped out that very day,” and sent to the state Department of Health for analysis. The granite, it turned out, contained high levels of uranium, which is not only radioactive but releases radon gas as it decays. “The health risk to me and my family was probably small,” Dr. Sugarman said, “but I felt it was an unnecessary risk.”
As the popularity of granite countertops has grown in the last decade — demand for them has increased tenfold, according to the Marble Institute of America, a trade group representing granite fabricators — so have the types of granite available. For example, one source, Graniteland (graniteland.com) offers more than 900 kinds of granite from 63 countries. And with increased sales volume and variety, there have been more reports of “hot” or potentially hazardous countertops, particularly among the more exotic and striated varieties from Brazil and Namibia.
“It’s not that all granite is dangerous,” said Stanley Liebert, the quality assurance director at CMT Laboratories in Clifton Park, N.Y., who took radiation measurements at Dr. Sugarman’s house. “But I’ve seen a few that might heat up your Cheerios a little.”
Allegations that granite countertops may emit dangerous levels of radon and radiation have been raised periodically over the past decade, mostly by makers and distributors of competing countertop materials. The Marble Institute of America has said such claims are “ludicrous” because although granite is known to contain uranium and other radioactive materials like thorium and potassium, the amounts in countertops are not enough to pose a health threat.
Indeed, health physicists and radiation experts agree that most granite countertops emit radiation and radon at extremely low levels. They say these emissions are insignificant compared with so-called background radiation that is constantly raining down from outer space or seeping up from the earth’s crust, not to mention emanating from manmade sources like X-rays, luminous watches and smoke detectors.
But with increasing regularity in recent months, the Environmental Protection Agency has been receiving calls from radon inspectors as well as from concerned homeowners about granite countertops with radiation measurements several times above background levels. “We’ve been hearing from people all over the country concerned about high readings,” said Lou Witt, a program analyst with the agency’s Indoor Environments Division.
Last month, Suzanne Zick, who lives in Magnolia, Tex., a small town northwest of Houston, called the E.P.A. and her state’s health department to find out what she should do about the salmon-colored granite she had installed in her foyer a year and a half ago. A geology instructor at a community college, she realized belatedly that it could contain radioactive material and had it tested. The technician sent her a report indicating that the granite was emitting low to moderately high levels of both radon and radiation, depending on where along the stone the measurement was taken.
“I don’t really know what the numbers are telling me about my risk,” Ms. Zick said. “I don’t want to tear it out, but I don’t want cancer either.”
The E.P.A. recommends taking action if radon gas levels in the home exceeds 4 picocuries per liter of air (a measure of radioactive emission); about the same risk for cancer as smoking a half a pack of cigarettes per day. In Dr. Sugarman’s kitchen, the readings were 100 picocuries per liter. In her basement, where radon readings are expected to be higher because the gas usually seeps into homes from decaying uranium underground, the readings were 6 picocuries per liter.
The average person is subjected to radiation from natural and manmade sources at an annual level of 360 millirem (a measure of energy absorbed by the body), according to government agencies like the E.P.A. and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The limit of additional exposure set by the commission for people living near nuclear reactors is 100 millirem per year. To put this in perspective, passengers get 3 millirem of cosmic radiation on a flight from New York to Los Angeles.
A “hot” granite countertop like Dr. Sugarman’s might add a fraction of a millirem per hour and that is if you were a few inches from it or touching it the entire time.
Nevertheless, Mr. Witt said, “There is no known safe level of radon or radiation.” Moreover, he said, scientists agree that “any exposure increases your health risk.” A granite countertop that emits an extremely high level of radiation, as a small number of commercially available samples have in recent tests, could conceivably expose body parts that were in close proximity to it for two hours a day to a localized dose of 100 millirem over just a few months.
David J. Brenner, director of the Center for Radiological Research at Columbia University in New York, said the cancer risk from granite countertops, even those emitting radiation above background levels, is “on the order of one in a million.” Being struck by lightning is more likely. Nonetheless, Dr. Brenner said, “It makes sense. If you can choose another counter that doesn’t elevate your risk, however slightly, why wouldn’t you?”
Radon is the second leading cause of lung cancer after smoking and is considered especially dangerous to smokers, whose lungs are already compromised. Children and developing fetuses are vulnerable to radiation, which can cause other forms of cancer. Mr. Witt said the E.P.A. is not studying health risks associated with granite countertops because of a “lack of resources.”
The Marble Institute of America plans to develop a testing protocol for granite. “We want to reassure the public that their granite countertops are safe,” Jim Hogan, the group’s president, said earlier this month “We know the vast majority of granites are safe, but there are some new exotic varieties coming in now that we’ve never seen before, and we need to use sound science to evaluate them.”
Research scientists at Rice University in Houston and at the New York State Department of Health are currently conducting studies of granite widely used in kitchen counters. William J. Llope, a professor of physics at Rice, said his preliminary results show that of the 55 samples he has collected from nearby fabricators and wholesalers, all of which emit radiation at higher-than-background levels, a handful have tested at levels 100 times or more above background.
Personal injury lawyers are already advertising on the Web for clients who think they may have been injured by countertops. “I think it will be like the mold litigation a few years back, where some cases were legitimate and a whole lot were not,” said Ernest P. Chiodo, a physician and lawyer in Detroit who specializes in toxic tort law. His kitchen counters are granite, he said, “but I don’t spend much time in the kitchen.”
As for Dr. Sugarman, the contractor of the house she bought in Lake George paid for the removal of her “hot” countertops. She replaced them with another type of granite. “But I had them tested first,” she said.
Where to Find Tests and Testers
TO find a certified technician to determine whether radiation or radon is emanating from a granite countertop, homeowners can contact the American Association of Radon Scientists and Technologists (aarst.org). Testing costs between $100 and $300.
Information on certified technicians and do-it-yourself radon testing kits is available from the Environmental Protection Agency’s Web site at epa.gov/radon, as well as from state or regional indoor air environment offices, which can be found at epa.gov/iaq/whereyoulive.html. Kits test for radon, not radiation, and cost $20 to $30. They are sold at hardware stores and online.
According to EPA http://www.epa.gov/radiation/tenorm/granite-countertops.html Granite Overview
In geological terms, granite is an igneous rock, meaning it was formed when magma (molten rock) cooled very slowly until it solidified in a process that can take many of thousands, or even millions of years. Since the rock forms so slowly, minerals have a long time to grow into the crystals that give granite its decorative appearance. Depending on the crystals that are formed, granite can come in a wide range of colors. This and other factors, make granite a popular building material in homes and buildings.
Radiation From Granite
Any naturally formed rock material has the potential of containing varying amounts of naturally occurring radiation. Natural radioactive elements like uranium, radium, and thorium can be present in a wide number of minerals that appear as crystals in granite from around the world. So, it is not unusual for materials such as granite to have some amount of radioactivity (emissions of alpha or beta particles or gamma rays). Depending on the composition of the molten rock from which they formed, some pieces of granite can exhibit more radioactivity than others.
EPA has not conducted studies on radioactivity in granite countertops. However, based on the limited information available, EPA believes that most types of granite used in countertops and other aspects of home construction are probably not major contributors of radiation and radon in the home. EPA will continue to monitor and analyze the evolving research on this issue and will update its recommendations if appropriate.
When present, certain radioactive elements in granite will decay into radon, a colorless, odorless, radioactive gas which may be released from the granite over time. You can see in the diagram below how the decay of Uranium-238 (a radioactive element) produces Radon-222 gas:
To learn more about radioactive decay and radioactive half lives, see our half-life page.
However, since granite is generally not very porous, less radon is likely to escape from it than from a more porous stone such as sandstone. It’s important to know that radon originating in the soil beneath homes is a more common problem and a far larger public health risk than radon from a granite countertop or other building materials. Also, any radon from granite in kitchens or bathrooms is likely to be somewhat diluted in the typical home since those rooms are among the most ventilated.
To reduce your risk of lung cancer from exposure to radon you should test the air in your home. There are many inexpensive do-it-yourself home radon test kits available at the retail level, on-line, or from 1-800-SOS-RADON (767-7236).
Radiation coming from granite countertops results from natural radioactive material in the granite. Identifying the presence and concentration of radioactive elements in granite requires expensive and sophisticated portable instruments or laboratory equipment. These instruments and equipment require proper calibration, and interpretation of their readings requires a knowledgeable and trained user. At this time, there is no generally accepted home testing protocol for radiation in granite countertops.
At the website maintained by The Conference of Radiation Control Program Directors (CRCPD), you can find contact information for each state's radiation protection program. Please visit, http://www.crcpd.org/Map/map.asp , to find information for your state.
According to Marble Institute of America:
Care and Precautions
Use coasters under all glasses, particularly those containing alcohol or citrus juices. Many common foods and drinks contain acids that will etch or dull the surface of many stones. Do not place hot items directly on the stone surface. Use trivets or mats under hot dishes and placemats under china, ceramics, silver or other objects that can scratch the surface.
Cleaning Procedures and Recommendations
Dust mop interior floors frequently using a clean non-treated dry dust mop. Sand, dirt and grit do the most damage to natural stone surfaces due to their abrasiveness. Mats or area rugs inside and outside an entrance will help to minimize the sand, dirt and grit that will scratch the stone floor. Be sure that the underside of the mat or rug is a non-slip surface. Normally, it will take a person about eight steps on a floor surface to remove sand or dirt from the bottom of their shoes. Do not use vacuum cleaners that are worn. The metal or plastic attachments or the wheels may scratch the surface.
Clean stone surfaces with a few drops of neutral cleaner, stone soap (available at hardware stores or from your stone dealer) or a mild liquid dishwashing detergent and warm water. Use a clean rag mop on floors and a soft cloth for other surfaces for best results. Too much cleaner or soap may leave a film and cause streaks. Do not use products that contain lemon, vinegar or other acids on marble or limestone. Rinse the surface thoroughly after washing with the soap solution and dry with a soft cloth. Change the rinse water frequently. Do not use scouring powders or creams; these products contain abrasives that may scratch the surface.
Bath and Other Wet Areas
In the bath or other wet areas, soap scum can be minimized by using a squeegee after each use. To remove soap scum, use a non-acidic soap scum remover or a solution of ammonia and water (about 1/2 cup ammonia to a gallon of water). Frequent or over-use of an ammonia solution may eventually dull the surface of the stone.
Vanity Top Surfaces
Vanity tops may need to have a penetrating sealer applied. Check with your installer for recommendations. A good quality marble wax or non-yellowing automobile paste wax can be applied to minimize water spotting.
Food Preparation Areas
In food preparation areas, the stone may need to have a penetrating sealer applied. Check with your installer for recommendations. If a sealer is applied, be sure that it is non-toxic and safe for use on food preparation surfaces. If there are questions, check with the sealer manufacturer.
Outdoor Pool & Patio Areas
In outdoor pool, patio or hot tub areas, flush with clear water and use a mild bleach solution to remove algae or moss.
Know Your Stone
Natural stone can be classified into two general categories according to its composition: siliceous stone or calcareous stone. Knowing the difference is critical when selecting cleaning products.
Siliceous stone is composed mainly of silica or quartz-like particles. It tends to be very durable and relatively easy to clean with mild acidic cleaning solutions. Types of siliceous stone include granite, slate, sandstone, quartzite, brownstone and bluestone.
Calcareous stone is composed mainly of calcium carbonate. It is sensitive to acidic cleaning products and frequently requires different cleaning procedures than siliceous stone. Types of calcareous stone include marble, travertine, limestone and onyx. What may work on siliceous stone may not be suitable on calcareous surfaces.
How to Tell the Difference
A simple acid sensitivity test can be performed to determine whether a stone is calcareous or siliceous. You will need about 4 oz. of a 10%solution of muriatic acid and an eye-dropper. Or you can use household vinegar and an eyedropper. Because this test may permanently etch the stone, select an out of the way area(a corner or closet) and several inches away from the mortar joint. Apply a few drops of the acid solution to the stone surface on an area about the size of a quarter. If the stone is calcareous, the acid drops will begin to bubble or fizz vigorously. If little or no reaction occurs, the stone can be considered siliceous. Rinse the area thoroughly with clean water and wipe dry. This test may not be effective if surface sealers or liquid polishes have been applied. If an old sealer is present, chip a small piece of stone away and apply the acid solution to the fractured surface. CAUTION: Muriatic acid is corrosive and is considered to be a hazardous substance. Proper head and body protection is necessary when acid is used.
A polished finish on the stone has a glossy surface that reflects light and emphasizes the color and marking of the material. This type of finish is used on walls, furniture tops and other items, as well as floor tiles.
A honed finish is a satin smooth surface with relatively little light reflection. Generally, a honed finish is preferred for floors, stair treads, thresholds and other locations where heavy traffic will wear off the polished finish. A honed finish may also be used on furniture tops and other surfaces.
A flamed finish is a rough textured surface used frequently on granite floor tiles.
Stone Colors and Appearance
Granites and marbles are quarried throughout the world in a variety of colors with varying mineral compositions. In most cases, marbles and granites can be identified by visible particles at the surface of the stone. Marble will normally show "veins" or high concentrations. The minerals in granite will typically appear as small flecks distributed uniformly in the stone. Each type of stone is unique and will vary in color, texture and marking.
Sandstones vary widely in color due to different minerals and clays found in the stone. Sandstone is light gray to yellow or red. A dark reddish brown sandstone, also called brownstone, has commonly been used in the northeastern United States and eastern Canada. Bluestone is a dense, hard, fine-grained sandstone of greenish-gray or bluish-gray color and is quarried in the eastern United States.
Limestone is a widely used building stone with colors typically light gray, tan or buff. A distinguishing characteristic of many limestones is the presence of fossils that are frequently visible in the stone surface. Slate is dark green, black, gray, dark red or multi-colored. It is most commonly used as a flooring material and for roof tiles and is often distinguished by its distinct cleft texture.
Spills and Stains
Blot the spill with a paper towel immediately. Don't wipe the area, it will spread the spill. Flush the area with plain water and mild soap and rinse several times. Dry the area thoroughly with a soft cloth. Repeat as necessary. If the stain remains, refer to the section in this brochure on stain removal.
Identifying the type of stain on the stone surface is the key to removing it. If you don't know what caused the stain, play detective. Where is the stain located? Is it near a plant, a food service area, an area where cosmetics are used? What color is it? What is the shape or pattern? What goes on in the area around the stain? Surface stains can often be removed by cleaning with an appropriate cleaning product or household chemical. Deep-seated or stubborn stains may require using a poultice or calling in a professional. The following sections describe the types of stains that you may have to deal with and appropriate household chemicals to use and how to prepare and apply a poultice to remove the stain.
Types of Stains and First Step Cleaning Actions OIL-BASED
(grease, tar, cooking oil, milk, cosmetics)
An oil-based stain will darken the stone and normally must be chemically dissolved so the source of the stain can be flushed or rinsed away. Clean gently with a soft, liquid cleanser with bleach OR household detergent OR ammonia OR mineral spirits OR acetone. ORGANIC
(coffee, tea, fruit, tobacco, paper, food, urine, leaves, bark, bird droppings)
May cause a pinkish-brown stain and may disappear after the source of the stain has been removed. Outdoors, with the sources removed, normal sun and rain action will generally bleach out the stains. Indoors, clean with12% hydrogen peroxide (hair bleaching strength) and a few drops of ammonia. METAL
(iron, rust, copper, bronze)
Iron or rust stains are orange to brown in color and follow the shape of the staining object such as nails, bolts, screws, cans, flower pots, metal furniture. Copper and bronze stains appear as green or muddy-brown and result from the action of moisture on nearby or embedded bronze, copper or brass items. Metal stains must be removed with a poultice.(See section on Making & Using a Poultice) Deep-seated, rusty stains are extremely difficult to remove and the stone may be permanently stained. BIOLOGICAL
(algae, mildew, lichens, moss, fungi)
Clean with diluted (1/2 cup in a gallon of water) ammonia OR bleach OR hydrogen peroxide. DO NOT MIX BLEACH ANDAMMONIA! THIS COMBINATION CREATES A TOXIC AND LETHAL GAS! INK
(magic marker, pen, ink)
Clean with bleach or hydrogen peroxide (light colored stone only!) or lacquer thinner or acetone (dark stones only!) PAINT
Small amounts can be removed with lacquer thinner or scraped off carefully with a razorblade. Heavy paint coverage should be removed only with a commercial "heavy liquid" paint stripper available from hardware stores and paint centers. These strippers normally contain caustic soda or lye. Do not use acids or flame tools to strip paint from stone. Paint strippers can etch the surface of the stone; re-polishing may be necessary. Follow the manufacturer's directions for use of these products, taking care to flush the area thoroughly with clean water. Protect yourself with rubber gloves and eye protection, and work in a well-ventilated area. Use only wood or plastic scrapers for removing the sludge and curdled paint. Normally, latex and acrylic paints will not cause staining. Oil-based paints, linseed oil, putty, caulks and sealants may cause oily stains. Refer to the section on oil-based stains. WATER SPOTS AND RINGS
(surface accumulation of hard water)
Buff with dry 0000 steel wool. FIRE AND SMOKE DAMAGE
Older stones and smoke or fire stained fireplaces may require a thorough cleaning to restore their original appearance. Commercially available "smoke removers" may save time and effort. ETCH MARKS
Etch marks are caused by acids left on the surface of the stone. Some materials will etch the finish but not leave a stain. Others will both etch and stain. Once the stain has been removed, wet the surface with clear water and sprinkle on marble polishing powder, available from a hardware or lapidary store, or your local stone dealer. Rub the powder onto the stone with a damp cloth or by using a buffing pad with a low-speed power drill. Continue buffing until the etch mark disappears and the marble surface shines. Contact your stone dealer or call a professional stone restorer for refinishing or re-polishing etched areas that you cannot remove. EFFLORESCENCE
Efflorescence is a white powder that may appear on the surface of the stone. It is caused by water carrying mineral salts from below the surface of the stone rising through the stone and evaporating. When the water evaporates, it leaves the powdery substance. If the installation is new, dust mop or vacuum the powder. You may have to do this several times as the stone dries out. Do not use water to remove the powder; it will only temporarily disappear. If the problem persists, contact your installer to help identify and remove the cause of the moisture. SCRATCHES AND NICKS
Slight surface scratches may be buffed with dry 0000 steel wool. Deeper scratches and nicks in the surface of the stone should be repaired and re-polished by a professional. Poultices
Making and Using a Poultice
A poultice is a liquid cleaner or chemical mixed with a white absorbent material to form a paste about the consistency of peanut butter. The poultice is spread over the stained area to a thickness of about 1/4 to 1/2 inch with a wood or plastic spatula, covered with plastic and left to work for 24 to 48 hours. The liquid cleaner or chemical will draw out the stain into the absorbent material. Poultice procedures may have to be repeated to thoroughly remove a stain, but some stains may never be completely removed.
Poultice materials include kaolin, fuller's earth, whiting, diatomaceous earth, powdered chalk, white molding plaster or talc. Approximately one pound of prepared poultice material will cover one square foot. Do not use whiting or iron-type clays such as fuller's earth with acid chemicals. The reaction will cancel the effect of the poultice. A poultice can also be prepared using white cotton balls, whitepaper towels or gauze pads.
Cleaning Agents or Chemicals
Poultice with baking soda and water OR one of the powdered poultice materials and mineral spirits. ORGANIC STAINS
Poultice with one of the powdered poultice materials and 12% hydrogen peroxide solution (hair bleaching strength) OR use acetone instead of the hydrogen peroxide. IRON STAINS
Poultice with diatomaceous earth and a commercially available rust remover. Rust stains are particularly difficult to remove. You may need to call a professional. COPPER STAINS
Poultice with one of the powdered poultice materials and ammonia. These stains are difficult to remove. You may need to call a professional. BIOLOGICAL STAINS
Poultice with dilute ammonia OR bleach OR hydrogen peroxide. DO NOT MIX AMMO-NIA AND BLEACH! THIS COMBINATIONCREATES A TOXIC AND LETHAL GAS!
Applying the Poultice
Prepare the poultice. If using powder, mix the cleaning agent or chemical to a thick paste the consistency of peanut butter. If using paper, soak in the chemical and let drain. Don't let the liquid drip.
Wet the stained area with distilled water.
Apply the poultice to the stained area about1/4 to 1/2 inch thick and extend the poultice beyond the stained area by about one inch. Use a wood or plastic scraper to spread the poultice evenly.
Cover the poultice with plastic and tape the edges to seal it.
Allow the poultice to dry thoroughly, usually about 24 to 48 hours. The drying process is what pulls the stain out of the stone and into the poultice material. After about 24 hours, remove the plastic and allow the poultice to dry.
Remove the poultice from the stain. Rinse with distilled water and buff dry with a soft cloth. Use the wood or plastic scraper if necessary.
Repeat the poultice application if the stain is not removed. It may take up to five applications for difficult stains.
If the surface is etched by the chemical, apply polishing powder and buff with burlap or felt buffing pad to restore the surface.
Dos and Don'ts
DO Dust mop floors frequently
DO Clean surfaces with mild detergent or stone soap
DO Thoroughly rinse and dry the surface after washing
DO Blot up spills immediately
DO Protect floor surfaces with non-slip mats or area rugs and countertop surfaces with coasters, trivets or placemats
DON'T Use vinegar, lemon juice or other cleaners containing acids on marble, limestone, travertine or onyx surfaces
DON'T Use cleaners that contain acid such as bathroom cleaners, grout cleaners or tub & tile cleaners
DON'T Use abrasive cleaners such as dry cleansers or soft cleansers
DON'T Mix bleach and ammonia; this combination creates a toxic and lethal gas
DON'T Ever mix chemicals together unless directions specifically instruct you to do so
Granite ranked #1 in cleanability when compared to six other countertop surfaces including stainless steel (based on a 1999 study by the Hospitality Institute of Technology and Management).
Marble and granite have the same level of cleanability as engineered (based on a 2006 study by the Hospitality Institute of Technology and Management).
Natural stone is competitively priced with quartz surface products and often priced lower.
Natural stone is low maintenance often only requiring warm water, mild dishwashing liquid and a soft cloth to maintain its beauty.
Many varieties of natural stone do not need to be sealed, although many are for customer peace of mind.
Granite does not emit dangerous levels of radon (based on technical paper by Dr. Donald Langmiur, PhD, Colorado School for Mines in 1995, confirming that consumers do not have to worry about radon exposure stemming from natural stone in their home). Click Here for More Info
Stone is a product of nature and has its own unique qualities that distinguish it from quartz surface materials. The wonderful character that is offered by vein patterns, color variations, and other design characteristics of stone should be taken into consideration when selecting the perfect stone for your project. Discuss these characteristics with your natural stone supplier.
Scientific versus Commercial Definition of stones
Stones, and the minerals of which they are composed, have been studied with keen interest in the earth science fields for centuries. Geology is the study of the formation and history of the earth, while petrography is the study of rocks and the minerals of which they're made. Geologists and petrographers worldwide have defined hundreds of different rock types, based on their mineral composition, texture, and method of formation. Commercially, the use of the exact scientific rock definition would be a cumbersome and unnecessarily complicated practice. Furthermore, there are many rocks which are not clearly within one definition or another, but rather "straddling the fence" between two definitions. This point is further elaborated by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS)1, Department of the Interior:
Scientific and commercial descriptions of various dimension stone types overlap. The scientific description of dimension stone types is focused primarily on the stone's geographic locality and mineralogical composition, whereas the commercial description is focused primarily on the locality and color of the stone. 2
Historically, it has been commercial practice to group stones within performance and behavioral groups as opposed to true scientific definition. This is recognized in several in ASTM International standards3. While scientifically there are hundreds of rock type identifications, only nine groups are commonly acknowledged commercially: Granite, Limestone, Marble, Onyx, Quartzite, Sandstone, Serpentine, Slate, Soapstone, and Travertine. This means that some rocks are included in groups which are not perfectly coincident with their scientific definition. High density and/or partially metamorphosed limestones, especially those capable of taking a polish, are oftentimes included in the marble group, because they appear, behave and perform more similarly to marble than to limestone. Most igneous rocks, such as gabbro, diabase, anorthosite, sodalite, gneiss, basalt, and many others are included in the granite group because they behave and perform similarly to granite. There are even a few non-igneous rocks (e.g. silicate-based conglomerates) that are commercially grouped with granites. Therefore, if you purchase a Crema Marfil "marble" vanity top, don't be surprised if your geologist friend visits your home and insists that it is limestone, because scientifically it is. Likewise, don't be surprised of the same geologist friend informs you that your Paradisio "granite" bar top and your Absolute Black "granite" kitchen island are really gneiss and gabbro respectively, because scientifically that's what they are.4 The key is performance. If a rock is sold within the granite group, the rock should be expected to have performance in that application that is similar, or in some cases superior, to that of a true granite.5
It is a fundamental position of the Marble Institute of America that there exists no such thing as a "bad stone". There do exist however, inappropriate selections for a given application, and also unrealistic expectations of a given stone type in a specific application. The informed selection of natural stone products is also influenced by the tastes of the end user. To some, natural wear, etching, or weathering bring about a hidden charm, or natural "patina" as the stone displays signs of its yielding to the forces encountered in its service. To others, the only acceptable performance is for the stone to maintain its pristine, "as new" look for the entire duration of its service life. Selections of natural stone types are available to satisfy both users, but the proper research must be completed to assure that the selected stone will perform in service with the desired behavior.
An excellent choice for kitchen countertops, floors, and other heavily used surfaces
Exact and current extraction figures are not available, as data collection from many countries is difficult. Statistics from various sources indicate that the granite quarried in the countries of China, India, and Brazil comprises approximately 2/3 of the granite used worldwide. There are granite quarries in operation in dozens of countries, and it is one of the most popular natural stones on the market. New granite resources are continually being located and developed throughout the world.
Granite has long enjoyed use as an exterior cladding and pavement material, and its inherent strength, abrasion resistance and superior weathering durability are likely to keep it one of the preeminent material selections available to today's architects. Granite has also been employed as the traditional material for municipal curbs, where its strength and durability have been documented with decades of vehicular abuse. In the northern climates where snow melting chemicals are used heavily, granite has resisted the attack of these caustic agents.
Being one of the hardest of the dimension stone types, granite was historically avoided by the smaller, local stone fabricating shops, who favored marbles and limestones due to their easier working properties. A recent boom in the supply of affordable machinery and abrasives technologies eliminated these previous difficulties in fabrication. The use of granite has skyrocketed in residential interior applications as a result. Available in a striking array of colors, granite's durability, longevity, and economy make it ideal for kitchen countertops and other heavily used surfaces, including table tops and floors.
Some synthetic surfaces scratch easily, while the hardness of the minerals comprising most granites surpasses that of the utensils that are used on them, resulting in excellent scratch resistance. Granite is typically heat resistant up to temperatures of ±250°C (±480°F), although direct application of localized heat sources is discouraged, since strong thermal gradients within the stone can initiate cracking. Studies of bacteria retention on common countertop surfaces have proven granite to be superior to the majority of surfaces employed for that purposes (Ref: MIA Technical Bulletins).
Absorption rates (% water, by weight) of stones in this group range from 0.05% to 0.40%, indicating that the available pore volume capable of harboring a staining agent is very slight. Impregnating repellents are sometimes used to further reduce the stain resistance of these materials.
Marble, Onyx, & Serpentine
Ideal for foyers, bathrooms, floors and hearths
Marble is a metamorphic rock found in the mountainous regions of most countries of the world. Marble quarried in India, China, Italy, and Spain represents the majority of marble, in terms of volume, that is utilized worldwide. Because of its beauty and elegance, marble is a popular choice for countertops, floors, foyers, fireplace facings and hearths, walls, and windowsills.
Marble with its inherent warmth, adds a sophisticated element to the area in which it is installed. Its naturally random appearance, engineering characteristics, and ease of maintenance makes it a premium choice for floors, wall claddings, table tops, wainscot, floors, and vanity tops. Many marbles are well suited for wet area application, which extends the versatility of this material to include tub decks and showers.
The calcite crystal is the basic building block of true marbles. The calcite crystal is vulnerable to attack by mild acids, including those commonly found in kitchen and bar settings. The user selecting marble for these applications should be aware of, and accepting of the maintenance and patina that is to be anticipated with this combination. Acid rain and other weathering elements can also affect exterior marble installations, and exterior applications are generally limited to white marbles, with some exceptions.
Often mistaken for marble is serpentine, which is actually magnesium-silicate based as opposed to calcite based. As a result of the different mineralogy and whole rock chemistry of serpentine, it exhibits greater acid resistance and abrasion resistance than does a true marble. These properties make serpentine a common choice for both kitchen counter and exterior application.
Onyx is often confused with marbles, yet it is a significantly different rock type. Onyx is a sedimentary rock, formed as stalactites and stalagmites in cave interiors. This formation method results in the cryptocrystalline construction of the rock fabric, and it is the size and uniformity of these crystals that contribute to the classic translucent property of most onyx varieties. While vulnerable to chemical and abrasive attack, the decorative appeal of onyx is perhaps unsurpassed by any other material.
Sandstone and Quartzite
Exploring the "quartz-based" stones
The term sandstone refers to the sand sized (0.06 to 2.0 mm) clasts that are cemented together by other agents. Therefore, sandstone could be of any mineralogy, but the overwhelming majority of sandstones on the market are quartz-based.
The durability and performance of sandstone is not as greatly influenced by the sand sized particles, as it is influenced by the cementing agent that binds these particles together. Many types of sandstone are used in cubic sections as sills, coping, watertables and other exterior features. Exterior cladding is also a common application, although this stone variety is typically used in thicker sections than other stone types due to lower bending strengths. While sandstone has been used in both countertop and shower lining applications, the varieties that are suitable for these installations are limited.
Quartzite is a metamorphic rock that is formed from sandstone. Quartzite can be of exceptional strength, density, and hardness. The strength, abrasion resistance, and weathering durability of this rock type expand its application possibilities to include most any of the common uses for natural, dimension stone.
Slate and Soapstone
Versatile, Chemically Resistant Materials
A traditional use of both these materials was the laboratory table top in chemistry labs. That application alone should serve as a great testimonial to the chemical resistance of the materials.
Being of the softer varieties of dimension stone types, neither of these materials is known for particularly high abrasion or scratch resistance, yet they are both used a flooring and countertop products.
Soapstone is highly heat resistant, and has been used in fireplace surrounds frequently to take advantage of this property.
Slate, being of laminar construction, has the ability to be processed into thin sheets and still maintain serviceable strength and rigidity. This property makes slate the only dimension stone having been used for blackboards and roofing shingles. It was also traditionally used as the cloth-covered playing surface of billiards tables.
Travertine, Limestone, and Dolomitic Limestone
An earthy appeal, indoors and out
Limestone deposits exist in all continents of the earth. Despite the common and traditional reference to "travertine marble", travertine is really a type of limestone. It is actually the terrestrial (land) formed version of limestone, as opposed to the marine based formations of many other limestone varieties.
Featuring their soft earth tones, decorators integrating these stones into their design have great flexibility in selecting complimentary colors for other interior elements.
Many varieties of both materials have enjoyed a successful history of exterior application, and some of the most prominent government and financial institutions worldwide proudly display limestone as their exterior cladding. Despite the popularity of exterior vertical limestone applications, the number of limestone varieties with successful history in exterior paving applications, particularly in freeze/thaw environments, is relatively limited.
Since these stones are some of the softer varieties of natural stone materials, they have long been a popular choice for intricately carved features and moldings, as well as statuary.
Limestone and travertine, like marble, are of a calcium carbonate base, and as such, are vulnerable to alteration by exposure to mild acids. A wide variety of stones are included in this group, and absorption varies from slight (<1%) to high (>10%). The combination of acid sensitivity and absorption limit the number of varieties that are suitable for countertop applications, and the user of limestone countertops should be well educated in its properties to accurately anticipate its behavior in service.
Another form of limestone exists, which is dolomite. Dolomite is based on the dual carbonate of calcium-magnesium carbonate, and the properties of this stone are influenced by this difference in composition. Dolomites generally have higher densities, lower absorptions, greater compressive and bending strengths, and higher abrasion resistance than the calcium carbonate based limestones. These property differences offer some application choices for dolomites where other limestone varieties are marginal or unsuitable performers.
ASTM International, originally known as the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), was formed over a century ago, when a forward-thinking group of engineers and scientists got together to address frequent rail breaks in the burgeoning railroad industry. Their work led to standardization on the steel used in rail construction, ultimately improving railroad safety for the public. As the century progressed and new industrial, governmental and environmental developments created new standardization requirements, ASTM answered the call with consensus standards that have made products and services safer, better and more cost-effective. The proud tradition and forward vision that started in 1898 is still the hallmark of ASTM International.
ASTM Committee C 18 on Dimension Stone was formed in 1926. C 18 meets twice per year, usually in April and October, with about 20 members attending over two days of technical meetings sometimes including a tour of a quarry and stone fabrication mill. The Committee, with a current membership exceeding 100 volunteers has jurisdiction of over 25 standards, published in the Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Volume 4.07. Committee C 18 has 6 technical subcommittees that maintain jurisdiction over these standards. Information on this subcommittee structure and C 18's portfolio of approved standards and work items under construction are available from www.astm.org. These standards have and continue to play a preeminent role in all aspects important to the effective standardization of dimension stone, including, testing, specifications and construction practices.
Dimension Stone Design Manual, VII, Marble Institute of America, 2007.
USGS Minerals Yearbook 2006, by Thomas P. Dolley, U.S. Geological Survey, Dept. of the Interior.
In 1879, Congress passed legislation to rename the Coast and Geodetic Survey and transfer it to the Department of the Interior establishing the U.S. Geological Survey for "(the) classification of the public lands, and examination of the geological structure, mineral resources, and products of the national domain."
USGS Minerals Yearbook 2006, by Thomas P. Dolley, U.S. Geological Survey, Dept. of the Interior.
ASTM International, originally known as the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), was formed in 1898.
Dimension Stone Design Manual, VII, Marble Institute of America, 2007, pages 5-9 and 5-10 describes the geological classification of granite as defined by the American Geological Institute (AGI).
"(Congress) did not suppose our merchants to be naturalists, or geologists, or botanists. It applied its attention to the description of articles as they derived their appellations in our own markets, in our domestic as well as our foreign traffic." Quoted from, Two Hundred Chests of Tea, 22 U.S. 430 (1824).
We specialize in: White onyx slabs, Tiger Paw onyx slabs, Red onyx slabs, Green onyx slabs, Caramel onyx slabs, Cappuccino onyx slabs, Honey onyx slabs, Yellow onyx slabs, , Ivory onyx slabs, Dark Green onyx slabs, Multi-red onyx slabs, Exotic Brown onyx slabs, Orange onyx slabs, Veined onyx slabs, Aqua Gold onyx slabs, Tiger Eye onyx slabs, Dark Green Veined onyx slabs, Giallo Crystal onyx slabs, Light Blue onyx slabs, Cram gold onyx slabs, arco iris onyx slabs, We have the following type of sinks: white onyx sink, tiger paw onyx sink, red onyx sink, green onyx sink, caramel onyx sink, cappuccino onyx sink, honey onyx sink, yellow onyx sink, ivory onyx sink, dark green onyx sink, multi-red onyx sink, exotic brown onyx sink, orange onyx sink, veined onyx sink, aqua gold onyx sink, tiger eye onyx sink, dark green veined onyx sink, giallo crystal onyx sink, light blue onyx sink, cram gold onyx sink, arco iris onyx sink, We have under mount sinks. white onyx under mount sink, tiger paw onyx under mount sink, red onyx under mount sink, green onyx under mount sink, caramel onyx under mount sink, cappuccino onyx under mount sink, honey onyx under mount sink, yellow onyx under mount sink, ivory onyx under mount sink, dark green onyx under mount sink, multi-red onyx under mount sink, exotic brown onyx under mount sink, orange onyx under mount sink, veined onyx under mount sink, aqua gold onyx under mount sink, tiger eye onyx under mount sink, dark green veined onyx under mount sink, giallo crystal onyx under mount sink, light blue onyx under mount sink, cram gold onyx under mount sink, arco iris onyx under mount sink, We have vessels. white onyx vessel, tiger paw onyx vessel, red onyx vessel, green onyx vessel, caramel onyx vessel, cappuccino onyx vessel, honey onyx vessel, yellow onyx vessel, ivory onyx vessel, dark green onyx vessel, multi-red onyx vessel, exotic brown onyx vessel, orange onyx vessel, veined onyx vessel, aqua gold onyx vessel, tiger eye onyx vessel, dark green veined onyx vessel, giallo crystal onyx vessel, light blue onyx vessel, cram gold onyx vessel, arco iris onyx vessel, European Onyx have countertop vessels. white onyx countertop vessel, tiger paw onyx countertop vessel, red onyx countertop vessel, green onyx countertop vessel, caramel onyx countertop vessel, cappuccino onyx countertop vessel, honey onyx countertop vessel, yellow onyx countertop vessel, ivory onyx countertop vessel, dark green onyx countertop vessel, multi-red onyx countertop vessel, exotic brown onyx countertop vessel, orange onyx countertop vessel, veined onyx countertop vessel, aqua gold onyx countertop vessel, tiger eye onyx countertop vessel, dark green veined onyx countertop vessel, giallo crystal onyx countertop vessel, light blue onyx countertop vessel, cram gold onyx countertop vessel, arco iris onyx countertop vessel, At European Onyx , Boca Raton, FL we sell onyx, any color, white onyx, tiger paw onyx, red onyx, green onyx, caramel onyx, cappuccino onyx, honey onyx, yellow onyx, , ivory onyx, dark green onyx, multi-red onyx, exotic brown onyx, orange onyx, veined onyx, aqua gold onyx, tiger eye onyx, dark green veined onyx, giallo crystal onyx, light blue onyx, cram gold onyx, arco iris onyx, In our European Onyx Boca Raton FL showroom we stock onyx mosaic tile, any color mosaic tile, white onyx mosaic tile, tiger paw onyx mosaic tile, red onyx mosaic tile, green onyx mosaic tile, caramel onyx mosaic tile, cappuccino onyx mosaic tile, honey onyx mosaic tile, yellow onyx mosaic tile, mosaic tile, ivory onyx mosaic tile, dark green onyx mosaic tile, multi-red onyx mosaic tile, exotic brown onyx mosaic tile, orange onyx mosaic tile, veined onyx mosaic tile, aqua gold onyx mosaic tile, tiger eye onyx mosaic tile, dark green veined onyx mosaic tile, giallo crystal onyx mosaic tile, light blue onyx mosaic tile, cram gold onyx mosaic tile, arco iris onyx mosaic tile, In our European Onyx Boca Raton FL showroom we sell onyx tile, any color tile, white onyx tile, tiger paw onyx tile, red onyx tile, green onyx tile, caramel onyx tile, cappuccino onyx tile, honey onyx tile, yellow onyx tile, tile, ivory onyx tile, dark green onyx tile, multi-red onyx tile, exotic brown onyx tile, orange onyx tile, veined onyx tile, aqua gold onyx tile, tiger eye onyx tile, dark green veined onyx tile, giallo crystal onyx tile, light blue onyx tile, cram gold onyx tile, arco iris onyx tile,
We consistently beat the prices offered by Ann Sacks, Sherle Wagner, Walker Zanger, Keys Granite, Coverings, Inter continental, Home Depot, Lowes. We are one of the largest onyx distributor in USA. We stock onyx tiles, mosaics, sinks, tubs, slabs, vanities, and custom products. We specialize in white onyx, tiger paw onyx, red onyx, green onyx, caramel onyx, cappuccino onyx, honey onyx, yellow onyx, , ivory onyx, dark green onyx, multi-red onyx, exotic brown onyx, orange onyx, veined onyx, chiaro onyx, aqua gold onyx, tiger eye onyx, dark green veined onyx, giallo crystal onyx, light blue onyx, cram gold onyx, arco iris onyx, kasbah onyx, white onyx slabs, tiger paw onyx slabs, red onyx slabs, green onyx slabs, caramel onyx slabs, cappuccino onyx slabs, honey onyx slabs, yellow onyx slabs, , ivory onyx slabs, dark green onyx slabs, multi-red onyx slabs, exotic brown onyx slabs, orange onyx slabs, veined onyx slabs, aqua gold onyx slabs, tiger eye onyx slabs, dark green veined onyx slabs, giallo crystal onyx slabs, light blue onyx slabs, cram gold onyx slabs, arco iris onyx slabs,
European Onyx is a proud member of the
National Kitchen and bath association American Society of interior decorators
We are one of the largest onyx distributor in USA. We stock onyx tiles, mosaics, sinks, tubs, slabs, vanities, and custom products. We specilize in white onyx, tiger paw onyx, red onyx, green onyx, caramel onyx, cappuccino onyx, honey onyx, yellow onyx, , ivory onyx, dark green onyx, multi-red onyx, exotic brown onyx, orange onyx, veined onyx, chiaro onyx, aqua gold onyx, tiger eye onyx, dark green veined onyx, giallo crystal onyx, light blue onyx, cram gold onyx, arco iris onyx, kasbah onyx, white onyx slabs, tiger paw onyx slabs, red onyx slabs, green onyx slabs, caramel onyx slabs, cappuccino onyx slabs, honey onyx slabs, yellow onyx slabs, , ivory onyx slabs, dark green onyx slabs, multi-red onyx slabs, exotic brown onyx slabs, orange onyx slabs, veined onyx slabs, aqua gold onyx slabs, tiger eye onyx slabs, dark green veined onyx slabs, giallo crystal onyx slabs, light blue onyx slabs, cram gold onyx slabs, arco iris onyx slabs,
** All our installations are performed by licensed and insured professionals. We guarantee all materials that we sell and install.
European Onyx is a proud member of the
National Kitchen and bath association American society of interior decorators
Installation, Fabrication, Shower Enclosures, Remodel, Kitchen and bath remodel, additions, general contractor
LARGEST SELECTION, BEST PRICES
NEW Onyx Arrivals!!
European Onyx is one the largest Onyx distributors in united states.
European Onyx owns 2 onyx queries in Turkey.
European Onyx owns and operates tile and mosaic factories in Turkey, Pakistan and China.
Demand European Onyx brand products from your tile retailers.
Sizes and or shapes of onyx products we stock: 1/2 x 1, 1/2 x 1, 1/2 x 2, 3/4x3/4, 3/4 x 1 1/2 round, 1x2, 1 x 1 3/4, 1 x 1 3/4, 1, 1/4 x 2 1/4, 1 3/8 x 2 3/8, 1 x 3, 2x2, 2x2, 1/2x1/2 or 5/8x5/8, 1/2x1/2 or 5/8x5/8, 1/2 x 1, 3/4x3/4, 3/4x3/4, 1x1, 1x1, 1x2, brick/subway , 1x2, 2x2, 2x2, 2x4, 2x4, 4x4, 4x4, 3x6, 3x6, 6x12, tic tac, basket w red, basket w Brown, Basket with black, basket w White, Deco, diamond, hexagon, fish scale, boarder, pencil, chair rail, 12x12, 16x16 , 18x18, 24x24, round sinks, rectangle, sinks, pedestal sinks, Slab